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  • Jennifer Hoglin

Tender Perennial Culinary Herbs

Updated: Feb 9

Welcome to the second instalment on culinary herbs! The article on annual herbs was getting really long, so I have divided out the tender perennial herbs into their own article. These are plants that are perennial in some parts of the world, but here in our cold climate, we treat them as annuals. They grow and produce enough in just one season to make them worth growing, they just can't hack our cold. For perennials herbs that are zone 4 and hardier, see the next article: Hardy Perennial Culinary Herbs (link coming soon). Check out the introduction to culinary herbs article here to see details on all the growing, maintaining, harvesting, propagating and storing methods for the herbs mentioned below.



Bay (Laurus nobilis)


Also known as bay laurel, this herb is a standard in French cooking. It is an integral part of bouquet garni, a herb blend consisting of bay, thyme, parsley and peppercorns. It is also a member of pickling spice and garam masala blends. A truly international herb! Bay trees can be prone to scale insects here, so keep an eye on the stems and undersides of leaves.


H. Zell, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Plant type: long lived, slow growing, tender, evergreen tree.

Hardiness zone: 8 - 10

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: moist, rich, well-drained soil.

Start seeds indoors: possible, but can be challenging. It may take up to 6 months to germinate and requires stratification.

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 25 - 50' tall in its native range. It is typically grown in a large pot in our climate, where its slow growth and consistent pruning will keep it much smaller. Look for a container that is as deep as possible. Pots can be moved outdoors in summer and back indoors for fall, winter and spring. Or, you can keep it indoors year round.

Edible parts: leaves (flowers, seeds and fruit are also edible, but plants almost never flower in our climate).

Harvest: fresh leaves can be picked at any time.

Best way to propagate: softwood cuttings are your best bet, but they can take many months to root, so patience is required.

Best way to store: Bay is one of the few herbs that has a better flavour dried than fresh. Fresh tend to be a bit bitter. Dry leaves out of direct sunshine and store in an airtight container.

Flavour description: slightly resinous and familiar.

Best used: meat, fish, poultry, soups, stocks, stew, lentils, beans. Sprigs removed from their leaves work great as skewers. Bay leaves can exude flavour in a recipe for hours, making it perfect for long simmering dishes. Remove leaves from food before eating.

Good varieties: only one variety, sold as Bay or Bay Laurel.


Curry Plant (Helichrysum italicum syn. H. angustifolium)


The curry that most of us know is typically a blend of many herbs and spices. The leaves of the curry plant can be used as kind of a shortcut to get that same flavour with just one herb, although some cooks also use it as a component in their spice blends as well.


photo by Pixaby

Plant type: tender shrub

Hardiness zone: 8 - 9

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: needs very well-drained soil.

Start seeds indoors: 11 weeks before LFD

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: up to 2' tall.

Edible parts: leaves

Harvest: pick sprigs as needed throughout the year.

Best way to propagate: take tip cuttings to pot up indoors. Or keep in a pot indoors and transfer outside for the summer months.

Best way to store: best used fresh.

Flavour description: curry

Best used: eggs, rice, vegetables, chicken. It is best to use whole sprigs and remove them after cooking (like you do with bay leaves or sometimes rosemary).

Good varieties: Sold as just Curry plant. There is also a mini version (called Mini Curry Plant) that gets just 12" tall and is nicely bushy and compact.


Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)


Fennel is grown as both an annual vegetable (the above ground bulb) and a herb (the wispy leaves). Both have a delicious licorice/anise flavour to them. It is native to the Mediterranean, so that gives you an idea of what it likes: hot and sunny. Like dill, fennel is a host for butterflies like the Swallowtail. So if you see caterpillars on them, no squishing or spraying! Also note, that fennel does not play well with most other plants. It is known to inhibit the growth of many nearby specimens, so keep it mostly to itself (see the article on Companion Planting for the Veggie Garden for more details).


photo by Pixaby

Plant type: tender perennial

Hardiness zone: 5

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: warm with consistent moisture.

Start seeds indoors: 4 weeks before LFD

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm) as carefully as you can. They don't like root disturbance.

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: up to 5' tall, depending on the variety.

Edible parts: leaves, stems, above ground bulb, seeds.

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the growing season. Seeds should be left on the plant until completely dry, then shaken into a paper bag to harvest. Bulbs can be harvested once at your preferred size.

Best way to propagate: best from seed started indoors each year.

Best way to store: leaves can be used fresh, dried (microwave is the best method) or chopped and frozen in ice cube trays. Seeds should be stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark location.

Flavour description: licorice/anise.

Best used: salads, sauces, soups, fish, egg dishes, sausages, pasta, tea, as a part of Chinese 5-spice and Ethiopian berbere sauce.

Good varieties: Florence or Orion (for the bulb), Sweet Fennel (for leaves and stems), Bronze Fennel (for leaves).


French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus var. sativa)


Do not be fooled by Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculoides). It does not have even close to the same flavour as the French variety. If you had tarragon that overwintered in your garden and grew to huge proportions, that was the Russian type (it's hardy to zone 2). The French variety is the one with that traditional flavour that is superior. It is far less hardy and does not grow true to seed. That means you must either buy starter plants or propagate them yourself from an existing plant using cuttings. You may also occasionally find Winter tarragon (also called Mexican tarragon or Mexican mint) (Tagetes lucida) which is even less hardy, but great for super hot, sunny spots. And it has a much closer flavour to the French variety than the Russian type.


Kolforn (Wikimedia), CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Plant type: tender perennial

Hardiness zone: 5

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: Well drained, rich soil on the alkaline side if possible. Fairly drought resistant. Water from the bottom only, as it is very prone to fungal diseases.

Start seeds indoors: n/a

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 2 - 3' tall by 1' wide.

Edible parts: leaves

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the growing season.

Best way to propagate: tip cuttings in spring or early autumn, or root division. Patience is required as it takes up to 2 months to root. Use heat and lights to overwinter it until next spring.

Best way to store: best used fresh, in compound butter, or in oil or vinegar. It can be dried, but the flavour won't be quite as good and it fades quickly.

Flavour description: sweet, anise with basil and resin.

Best used: fish, shellfish, game, veal, egg, tomato, poultry dishes, salad dressings, used in fines herbes and sauce verte.

Good varieties: sold as French Tarragon.


Lavender, French (Lavendula dentata) and Spanish (Lavendula stoechas)


There are three different types of lavender available here. French and Spanish types are not at all hardy in our climate. These types either need to be treated as an annual outside, or brought inside for the cooler months. You can find them in the annual or sometimes the tropical sections of your local greenhouse. They are often pruned into topiaries or grafted onto tree forms. English lavender is hardy here and more info can be found on it in the article on Hardy Perennial Herbs (link coming soon). English lavender is more typically used for culinary purposes, but the French and Spanish types can also be used.


Spanish lavender: Jean-Pol GRANDMONT, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Plant type: tender shrub

Hardiness zone: 8 - 9

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: well drained soil is a must. French lavender requires lots of moisture, while Spanish lavender is more drought tolerant.

Start seeds indoors: n/a

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: at full size, it can reach 2 - 4' tall and wide.

Edible parts: flowers

Harvest: prune branches as needed. Try to only remove green growth, as cutting back woody branches can weaken the plant.

Best way to propagate: difficult from seed. Taking tip or root cuttings is the best way.

Best way to store: fresh or air-dried.

Flavour description: sweet, floral, pungent fragrance like a cross between mint and rosemary with subtle hints of lemon.

Best used: tea, sweets (such as custards, shortbread, jams and jellies), as a component of ras el hanout and herbes de Provence blends. Flowers can also be crystallized for garnishes. Really watch how much you use as it can be quite overpowering and too much tends to taste soapy or like perfume.

Good varieties: French lavenders tend to be quite camphorous. Spanish lavender is more resinous and can often be found as French lavender too just to be confusing. Look to the Latin names for accurate identification.


Lemon Verbena (Aloysia triphylla)


This is one herb that is most often associated with sweets rather than savory foods. It has an amazingly strong lemon fragrance and flavour, so much so that it is often used in place of lemon zest or lemongrass in recipes. The best way to grow it here is to keep it indoors except for the very hottest part of summer, where it can temporarily be moved outside. Be aware, it is deciduous, so it will lose its leaves in winter, even if brought indoors. If you do keep it inside, watch for spider mites to which it is prone. Use a garlic spray if necessary to deter them. Don't confuse Lemon Verbena with the pretty annual bedding plant verbena (Verbena officinalis), also called vervain, which is not edible.


photo by Pixaby

Plant type: tender shrub

Hardiness zone: 7 - 8

Sun requirement: full sun to light shade

Soil requirement: well drained soil.

Start seeds indoors: n/a

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 5 - 10' tall by 3 - 5' wide when full grown over multiple years. A small shrub when grown and overwintered here.

Edible parts: leaves and flowers.

Harvest: prune to maintain shape throughout the growing season and use the leaves and flowers you prune off in the kitchen.

Best way to propagate: very hard to propagate by seed or by divisions. We recommend you purchase this one as a starter plant or small shrub.

Best way to store: use fresh or air dried. The dried herb will have a milder flavour, but you will still get a good shot of lemon.

Flavour description: strong lemon. It's really strong! Only a couple of fresh leaves are needed for a cup of tea. If overused, it will give a decidedly soapy flavour.

Best used: tea, preserves, stuffing, custards, desserts, drinks, fish dishes and fruit salads.

Good varieties: sold just as Lemon Verbena.


Oregano (Origanum vulgare)


There is a lot of confusion between marjoram and oregano, in both the plant community with naming and within the cooking community. Common oregano (Origanum vulgare) has six subspecies in addition to the standard species. These subspecies all tend to have much better flavour than than the common type, so look for those (see good varieties below for ones available here). Pot marjoram (O. onites), although called marjoram is really an oregano and is quite hardy. It goes by many, many names (Turkish oregano, Greek oregano, Italian oregano, Cretan oregano and more) so look for the Latin name to be sure you are getting what you want. And to make it even more confusing, this one is often mislabeled as a subspecies of O. vulgare as well. Both oregano and marjoram are great companion plants in the vegetable garden as pollinator attractors and pest deterrents. Oregano especially is fabulous at deterring cabbage moths (a bane for many of us Calgary gardeners).


Plant type: Hardy perennial.

Hardiness zone: Zone 5. I have had success overwintering these (especially Greek oregano). It will be beneficial to put this in a protected area and mulch really, really well if you want to try. And take cuttings just in case we have a bad winter.

Sun requirement: Full sun.

Soil requirement: Well drained soil on the rocky side. Flavour will be stronger with more heat and less water.

Start seeds indoors: 7 weeks before LFD. Bottom heat will help with germination. Sprinkle seeds on top of the soil and be careful, the seeds are tiny!

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 2 1/2' tall by 2 - 3' wide.

Edible parts: Leaves.

Harvest: Leaves may be picked throughout the growing season.

Best way to propagate: Best from seed or soft cuttings. Ornamental hybrids will not be true to seed, so you will need to propagate from cuttings..

Best way to store: Flavour is more pronounced when dried versus fresh. Air dry leaves by hanging branches out of direct sunlight until dry. Remove leaves and store in an airtight container away from heat and light.

Flavour description: Similar to marjoram but spicier and zestier.

Best used: Pizza, pasta sauces, marinades and bean dishes.

Good varieties: Golden oregano (O. vulgare subsp. vulgare 'Aureum'), Greek Oregano (O. vulgare subsp. hirtum), Zaatar oregano (O. syriacum).


Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis)


Rosemary is a strong herb that is typically used in situations where its bold personality will shine, such as roasted meats and potatoes. It's a herb that goes well with Alberta food! There are many varieties available, although you will usually only find 2 or 3 of them as starter plants in the greenhouses. They can range from decently sized shrubs to prostate varieties that are great for spilling over containers. You can even prune them into topiary shapes. Most varieties also have stunning blue flowers, if they get enough heat and sun in our short season.


Plant type: tender shrub

Hardiness zone: 8 - 10

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: drought tolerant, needs excellent drainage, preferably acidic soils.

Start seeds indoors: n/a

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: up to 2 - 3' tall and wide, but varies by variety.

Edible parts: leaves, flowers.

Harvest: prune off branches as needed.

Best way to propagate: take softwood cuttings or dig up the entire plant and repot to bring indoors in the winter time. The best idea is to leave it in a pot year round and just move it from inside to outside and back. Rosemary may need artificial lights to do well indoors in winter here, especially if it is a larger specimen. Seeds are hard to germinate and they rarely grow true to seed.

Best way to store: fresh or air dried. Store entire dried stems, instead of individual leaves, if possible, for better flavour. Can also be used to infuse oil and vinegar.

Flavour description: strong, piney flavour with overtones of mint and eucalyptus.

Best used: tea, potato dishes, soups, meats (especially lamb), roasted vegetables, peas, Mediterranean dishes, honey. Stems can be used as skewers for kebobs. Flowers can be candied. Go easy on using rosemary as it can be quite strong and will easily overpower other flavours.

Good varieties: many great cultivars exist but few are available here as starter plants. Any will work well for you. If you happen to find one named Roman Rosemary, grab it (and let me know!) as I actually overwintered it one year (with protection of course) and didn't get a chance to propagate it.


Saffron (Crocus sativus)


Did you know you could grow saffron here? As one of the most expensive spices in the world, it would be monetarily worth it for sure! You will need a number of plants though, as it typically takes around 6 plants for a single recipe and each flower has only 3 stigmas. It is the stigmas of the plants that we use as saffron, and you need to harvest them by hand (tweezers work well), so be prepared for some labour if you want a significant amount. The flowers are really just a variety of autumn crocus, a corm (a type of bulb) that is quite common here.


photo by Richters

Plant type: tender bulb

Hardiness zone: 6 - 8

Sun requirement: full to part sun.

Soil requirement: well drained, preferably sandy soils.

Start seeds indoors: dig up corms and plant in a container with potting soil in late fall, after the first frost.

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: up to 1' tall. Crocus will naturalize and eventually spread into a 4' wide clump.

Edible parts: flower stigmas.

Harvest: pick individual stigmas from flowers once they have completely opened in early fall.

Best way to propagate: from corms that are dug up in fall shortly after the first frost. Pot up corms and keep them in a cool place for the winter. Do not water them. Transplant to a spot in the garden in late spring/early summer. Divide corms in their 3rd or 4th year.

Best way to store: allow stigmas to air dry in a warm sunny spot and store in an airtight container away from light and heat.

Flavour description: saffron has several different tasting notes: floral, honey-like, musky, mushroomy, pungent, and bitter.

Best used: traditional in bouillabaisse, paella, tagines and risotto. Used with chicken, soups, sauces, noodle dishes and both sweet and savoury pastries.

Good varieties: there are many types of autumn crocus, but only one produces edible stigmas used for saffron. Look for Saffron Crocus or Crocus sativa.


Sage (Salvia spp.)


There are over 700 species of Salvia. They range from annual ornamental plants to tender shrubs to hardy perennials. And they come in a huge variety of flavours, leaf variegations and flower colours. Note that there are many varieties that are not edible out there, so double check before you sample. I have also included Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis) in the hardy perennial herbs article (link coming soon) as it is the one variety that is a zone 4 and will often overwinter in our climate. All other sages should be considered tender.


Plant type: tender perennial.

Hardiness zone: varies by variety.

Sun requirement: full sun.

Soil requirement: drought tolerant. Prefers well drained, poor soils so hold back on the fertilizer. All of the Salvia officinalis is partial to alkaline soil.

Start seeds indoors: 8 weeks before LFD

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 2' tall and wide.

Edible parts: leaves and flowers.

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the growing season. Hang the entire plant to dry at the end of the season (take some cuttings first).

Best way to propagate: from seed or by tip cuttings potted up indoors. Most sages do not do well indoors long term, so it is best to start new cuttings each year rather than bring an entire plant in and out over several years.

Best way to store: fresh or air dried. Store dried leaves in an airtight container away from light and heat. Flavour will intensify with drying.

Flavour description: savory with an overtone of camphor.

Best used: tea, meat dishes, soups, stews, stuffing, sausages, poultry, beans, casseroles, eggplant, tomato sauces, in breads, in honey, in drinks, as a garnish (try it deep-fried too). Also good for flavouring vinegars. Sage can be quite strong so use a light hand with it.

Good varieties: tons of varieties to choose from! They are all worth trying, but a couple of my edible favourites are: Pineapple, Greek, Golden, Tricolor, Tangerine and Honey Melon. Once again, see the Hardy Perennial Culinary Herbs article for regular Garden Sage.


Salad Burnet (Sanguisorba minor syn. Poterium sanguisorba, Pimpinella sanguisorba)


This herb is unfamiliar to most growers, and that is a sad thing, because it has a beautiful fragrance and flavour. Its dainty, ferny leaves make it lovely addition to your growing space too. It definitely deserves room in your garden.


Photo by David J. Stang, CC BY-SA 4.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Plant type: tender evergreen perennial.

Hardiness zone: 5 - 8

Sun requirement: full sun to part shade.

Soil requirement: likes moist, well drained soil with lots of compost. It will survive in poor soils, but will be more bitter.

Start seeds indoors: 4 weeks before LFD.

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD. Not recommended with larger plants as it has a delicate taproot.

Direct seed outdoors: 1 week after LFD.

Mature size: 1 1/2' tall and 1' wide.

Edible parts: leaves.

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the year. Younger leaves will be the most tender.

Best way to propagate: best from seed. Can also be grown as a container plant that is moved outdoors in summer and brought indoors before the first frost.

Best way to store: fresh, frozen in ice cube trays or frozen whole in a zip-top bag. Can also be used to flavour vinegars or compound butters.

Flavour description: nutty cucumber flavour and aroma.

Best used: salad, dressings, soups, casseroles, vinegars and cream cheese. Also fantastic in refreshing summer beverages (a spritzer with white wine is especially nice).

Good varieties: usually sold just as Salad Burnet under one of the Latin names above. You can also find Greater Burnet (Sanguisorba officinalis or Poterium officinalis), which has a similar flavour but is much larger with leaves typically used like greens.


Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana)


Stevia is also known as the sugarleaf plant and for good reason. It is up to 300 times as sweet as sugar! My boys just graze on this herb all summer long. It's good for them if it's a green plant, right? Besides eating fresh, this is my go-to for a tea sweetener. Stevia is notoriously hard to germinate so check out the tips below.


Plant type: tender shrub.

Hardiness zone: 11+

Sun requirement: full sun. Stevia thrives in the heat!

Soil requirement: moist, well drained soil.

Start seeds indoors: 10 weeks before LFD. Use a heat mat. It is pretty much mandatory. You will get little to no germination without it. Stevia needs light to germinate as well, so sow seeds on top of the soil.

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: 1 - 2' tall and 1' wide.

Edible parts: leaves.

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the growing season.

Best way to propagate: I have honestly had a hard time propagating Stevia. They are really finicky to start from seed (a heat mat is a must) and I get really poor success rates with cuttings. The best bet is to bring in the entire plant for the winter. Make it easier on yourself and keep them in a pot that can be moved in and out each year.

Best way to store: fresh or dried. Dried stevia is even sweeter than fresh. Store dried leaves whole or ground (use a food processor) in an airtight container away from light and heat.

Flavour description: super sweet with a vegetable after taste.

Best used: dried leaves can be ground and used as a sugar substitute. Note that proportions will be different than regular sugar for baking, as it is much sweeter. Fresh or dried leaves are perfect for tea.

Good varieties: usually sold just as Stevia, although we are starting to see a couple of new varieties. I will keep this updated as I try them out.


Sweet Marjoram (Origanum marjorana syn. Marjorana hortensis)


As I mentioned in the section on Oregano there is a lot of confusion between marjoram and oregano. And because there are so many different varieties of oregano out there, poor marjoram often gets forgotten about or brushed off as the same thing. But marjoram is its own herb with its own unique and specialized characteristics. Sweet marjoram is the one we are looking for when it comes to flavour in the kitchen. It is less pungent and has a lighter flavour than oregano. It is also less robust, so add it at the end of your cooking to retain as much aroma as possible. Be on the lookout for Wild Marjoram (O. vulgare subsp. vulgareis) which has much less flavour, but is great for pollinators. This subspecies also has a cultivar 'Golden Marjoram' or 'Aureum' that is a great perennial groundcover for our zone. Not so good for eating though. If you run across Pot Marjoram (O. onites) know that it is a strong flavoured oregano that we will talked about in the oregano section.


photo by Pixaby

Plant type: tender perennial.

Hardiness zone: 9 - 11

Sun requirement: full sun

Soil requirement: drought tolerant plant, well drained, neutral to alkaline soils.

Start seeds indoors: 7 weeks before LFD.

Transplant outdoors: 2 weeks after LFD (once nighttime temperatures warm).

Direct seed outdoors: n/a

Mature size: up to 2' tall.

Edible parts: leaves.

Harvest: leaves may be picked throughout the growing season, but flavours will be at their peak before flowering. Pinch off stem tips to promote branching and use those cuttings.

Best way to propagate: The best way is to cut plants back to approximately 2 1/2" tall, divide and pot up to bring indoors for the winter. Taking softwood cuttings is also quite effective. Can be a bit challenging from seed, but if you are going to try, use bottom heat and don't overwater.

Best way to store: used fresh or dried.

Flavour description: similar to oregano, but with a sweeter, milder flavour and less strong aroma.

Best used: tea, meat dishes, stuffing, sausages, soups (especially potato), squash, tomatoes, a component of bouquet garni.

Good varieties: look for Sweet Marjoram with one of the Latin names above.


Yummy gardening everyone!


Related Articles


Culinary Herbs - Growing, Harvesting and Preserving


Annual Culinary Herbs


Hardy Perennial Culinary Herbs (link coming soon)


Recipes That Feature These Herbs



Further Reading and Resources


  • Pursell, J.J. "The Herbal Apothecary" 2015 Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, USA

  • Keville, Kathi "Herbs An Illustrated Encyclopedia. A Complete Culinary, Cosmetic, Medicinal, and Ornamental Guide" 1994 Friedman Publishing Group, New York, New York, USA

  • Helmer, Jodi "Growing Your Own Tea Garden. The Guide to Growing and Harvesting Flavorful Teas in Your Backyard" 2019 Fox Chapel Publishers, Mount Joy, PA, USA

  • Reader's Digest "The Essential Book of Herbs. Gardening. Health. Cooking." 2021 Trusted Media Brands, New York, USA

  • Clarke, Graham and Toogood, Alan "The Complete book of Plant Propagation" 1992, Ward Lock Limited, London, England

  • Richters (www.richters.com) for seeds, accessories, growing and medicinal information.

  • Veseys Seeds (https://www.veseys.com/ca/) for seeds and growing information.

  • West Coast Seeds (www.westcoastseeds.com) for seeds and growing information.




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